sep 082016
 

nativitas_maria

Consider what our prospects were before the birth not only of Our Lord, but from before the birth of His Mother, from whom He took our human nature, the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Today’s feast is older than the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, which was precisely nine months ago. Holy Church, in celebrating liturgically her holy birth for a long time, ultimately reasoned back to Mary’s holy conception. As St. Thomas Aquinas argued, “The Church celebrates the feast of our Lady’s Nativity. Now the Church does not celebrate feasts except of those who are holy. Therefore, even in her birth the Blessed Virgin was holy. Therefore, she was sanctified in the womb.” (STh III, q. 27, a. 1)

Lex Orandi Lex CredendiAs we worship, so do we believe. As we believe, so do we worship. Change our worship you change belief, and vice versa.

Here is the entry in the Roman Martyrology for today’s feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary: Festum Nativitatis beatae Mariae Virginis, ex semine Abrahae, de tribu Iuda ortae, ex progenie regis David, e qua Filius Dei natus est, factus homo de Spiritu Sancto, ut homines vetusta servitute peccati liberaret. – The feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, sprung from the seed of Abraham [and] from the tribe of Judah, from the line of David the king, from which was born the Son of God, made man of the Holy Ghost, that he might free men from the ancient slavery to sin.

Denne tekster er tatt fra Father Z. Dagens feiring er også omtalt på katolsk.no.

Jeg ble også diakonviet på denne dagen i 1999.

aug 082016
 

Eller mer presis stilt er vel spørsmålet heller; hva slags rytme og hastighet skal liturgien ha? På NLM-bloggen stod det for noen dager siden en artikkel om dette, der man innledningsvis kan lese: «Tempo and pacing are crucial parts of the success of any endeavor, and especially the liturgical arts, music, and education. The speed of delivery, the space between events and ideas, and the overall energy of one’s demeanor form a significant part of the tone of one’s message. Fish bite when the lure is in motion.»

Så skrives det noe om hva dette betyr for bl.a. undervisning, før vi kan lese:

An effective liturgist will establish exactly the right pace and habits in order to focus on the content itself. Conservatives often say “reverence takes time.” This is a fair statement, a worthy maxim, and a good drumbeat to rally fellow conservatives against Fr. Hasty Minute-Mass. But the tendency here is toward being slow, which may not be the most effective or appropriate tempo. The adage “festina lente” or “make haste slowly” conveys prudence, however quickness can convey strength, enthusiasm, and engagement. Just because something is slow, doesn’t mean it is rich and reverent. Slow liturgy might even be boring and anemic. So the question remains, “What pace makes an effective liturgy?”

Current educational research suggests there can be multiple «speeds» in one classroom. The traditional mass allowed for flexible pace and tempo in various parts of the liturgy, because the priest, choir, and faithful could occupy themselves in their own tasks without remaining necessarily in lockstep with each other. Similarly, effective liturgists today allow for a similar flexibility in the tempo; if the altar is delayed, the organist plays; if the choir is still singing, the priest slows his pace to wait for them to catch up. All things to be done are done well and given their proper amount of time, which may be a few moments or a few minutes.

Nonetheless, impatience has no place in the liturgy. An effective liturgist never “twiddles his thumbs” while waiting. Let me provide a key example: It is not uncommon in many parishes for the opening procession to reach the sanctuary before the organist has finished the introduction to the opening hymn. Having arrived at the altar, the priest sits there and looks at everyone, as they look at him; and together they glare and wait for those annoying few people to stop singing verses one and two, so that Mass can begin… forget about singing verses three and four! If we wonder why people don’t sing, it may have nothing to do with the song selections, the music, or the musicians– and it may have everything to do with the pastor and the altar servers. ….

Focusing on the content requires obedience to the liturgy. All analogous educational research suggests that an ordered “liturgical” environment fosters greater learning and participation. ….

jul 212016
 

Den kjente (og ikke spesielt konservative) liturgen og jesuitten John F. Baldovin skriver i magasinet America om hva som er fakta og hva som er misforståelsen når det gjelder prestens retning foran alteret, bl.a.:

Turning toward the East, or ad orientem, is technical liturgical language for the priest and people facing in the same direction. The suggestion is nothing new. The decision to allow Mass facing the people has had its opponents since it was allowed shortly after the end of the Second Vatican Council. And more recently it has been championed by none less than Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger in his many writings on the liturgy. …

… Opponents of Mass facing the people often point out that the Second Vatican Council’s “Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy” contains no provision for the practice. They are correct. The issue was discussed in the commission that produced the document as well as in the debates on the floor of the council. … But shortly after the constitution was approved in December 1963, the first instruction for implementing the reform appeared. “Inter Oecumenici” (1964) stated: “The main altar should preferably be freestanding, to permit walking around it and celebration facing the people. …

The alert reader will observe several things. First, the altar is described as both the place where the “Sacrifice of the Cross is made present” and “the table of the Lord.” … Second, it is interesting to note that facing the people is not mandated. That is, it has never been forbidden, perhaps because too many chapels were built in such a way that having an altar separate from the wall was not architecturally feasible. Nonetheless, the preference is clear that the main altar of a church is to be separated from the wall to make Mass facing the people possible.

Another “fiction” that is sometimes repeated is that the General Instruction presumes that the priest will face East. Critics point to four points in the description of the Mass (Nos. 124, 146, 157 and 165) when the priest is directed to turn towards the people. Two cautions are appropriate here. These directives may be in place to deal with the possibility that the priest can face East, in which case the Instruction makes clear that there are times when he must face the people. But the document does not direct the priest to turn around again to the altar after the prayer over the gifts and the eucharistic prayer—that is, it does not presume that he will be facing East.

One last fact: At the time of Vatican II some argued that the original position of the priest was facing the people. This, too, seems to have been a fiction. All of the evidence we have from the early church shows that facing East whence the Lord was expected to make his final coming was expected. In church building that could not be oriented (e.g., St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome) the priest faced East, which was also toward the people.

Baldovin skriver en hel del mer i denne artikkelen, bl.a. om hvorfor dette spørsmålet er blitt så veldig viktig i Kirken i vår tid: «A reversion to the pre-conciliar position of the priest at Mass would be a profound signal that the forward steps the church took in Vatican II are in question.»

jul 172016
 

Hos Corpus Christi Watershed kan vi lese at en biskop i USA har nektet alle feiring av messen ad orientem i sitt bispedømme, men et dokument fra Vatikanet fra år 2000 nekter biskoper å komme med slike bestemmelser:

When the 2000 (2002) Missal was promulgated, the Vatican’s CDW was asked whether bishops have authority to forbid “ad orientem” celebration. Dated 10 April 2000, the CDW response was unequivocal:

HIS DICASTERY [i.e. the Vatican’s Congregation for Divine Worship] wishes to state that Holy Mass may be celebrated versus populum or versus apsidem. Both positions are in accord with liturgical law; both are to be considered correct.

There is no preference expressed in the liturgical legislation for either position. As both positions enjoy the favor of law, the legislation may not be invoked to say that one position or the other accords more closely with the mind of the Church.

This letter (PROTOCOL NO. 564/00/L) specifically addresses whether a bishop can forbid “ad orientem.” They stated that, while exercising his rightful role as “moderator of the Sacred Liturgy in the particular Church entrusted to his pastoral care,” the Diocesan Bishop can neither “exclude nor mandate the use of a legitimate option.”

This letter was sent by the same congregation responsible for drafting the 2000 (2002) Missal and GIRM, which was approved by Pope St. John Paul II. The letter was signed by Cardinal Medina, CDW Prefect, and Archbishop Tamburrino, CDW Secretary. I have no idea why so many people commenting on this issue refuse to make reference to it.

jul 152016
 

Andre dag under Sacra Liturgia konferansen var det også en interessant sesjon (foredrag og videre samtale) om sangen som naturlig hører (hørte) med i messen:

After lunch, Dr Jennifer Donelson (of NLM) gave her paper, Origins and Effects of the Missa Lecta: Priestly Musical Formation in a Low Mass Culture. She began with an examination of solemnity, noting that the reference and norm in Sacrosanctum Concilium is the Solemn Mass (cf. SC 112-113). However, these sorts of Masses were rare before the Second Vatican Council, and are rare today. The general experience today is effectively that of a Low Mass with hymns replacing the Propers, and perhaps some singing of the Ordinary. The notion of solemnity is informed more by civic considerations than by liturgical ones – more people, more flowers, more applause sometimes seem to be what makes liturgical celebrations «solemn».

The Low Mass, however, cannot be understood properly without reference to the Solemn Mass …

Dr Donelson went on to look at the history of the relationship between speaking and singing in the liturgy. Up until roughly the end of the first millennium, liturgical texts were either spoken in near silence (as the Roman Canon is in the EF), or sung aloud. The number of texts spoken in a quiet voice increased between the 9th-11th centuries – for example, the prayers at the foot of the altar – and by the 12th century the rise of the missa lecta for various reasons had caused a rupture between text and music in the Western Church.

Why did this rupture persist? Low Mass made daily Mass possible, and an increased devotion to the Blessed Sacrament was thus also nourished, enabling more frequent reception of Holy Communion. Considerations of validity/liceity also contributed to the increasing neglect of music in the Roman Rite, resulting ultimately in minimalistic celebrations and a mechanistic, overly-rubrical approach to the liturgy: «It is in this way that one comes to think of the sacred liturgy in terms of power and control rather than in humble reception of what has been handed on.» (Dr Donelson)

Dr Donelson argued passionately against what she termed «liturgical sloth», the idea that if it takes 1 hour 15 minutes to sing a Solemn Mass, but 45 minutes to say a Low Mass, then why bother singing? Such an attitude is damaging and corrosive, as well as lacking in love. …

jul 142016
 

Andre dag under Sacra Liturgia konferansen holdt Dom Alcuin Reid et interessant foredrag han hadde kalt: On the Council Floor: The Council Fathers’ Debate of the Schema on the Sacred Liturgy. Der stilte han spørsmålet: «What did the Fathers of Vatican II think they were approving in Sacrosanctum Concilium – liturgical evolution or revolution?»

Dom Alcuin began by outlining the hermeneutical principles to be borne in mind: «What happened in the interpretation and implementation of the Constitution is an important and potent area for study, but we shall be unable to do that well if we do not read the Constitution in a manner that is consistent with the minds of the Council Fathers. We must be good historians: understanding the historical context of the principles and measures they laid down is crucial. An a posteriori isogesis of the Constitution, as is fashionable in some circles, is simply bad scholarship.»

He then moved to the conciliar discussion of article 37 of the schema, which would later become article 50 of SC, demonstrating the importance of reading the Council Fathers’ interventions in their entirety. To take two examples: Cardinal Spellman and Cardinal Ottaviani are often depicted as arch-conservatives, liturgical dinosaurs, resistant to any sort of possible liturgical reform, but this is based on a certain cherry-picking of their interventions regarding the liturgy constitution. If one reads the whole of their speeches, it is clear that they both accepted the need for genuine liturgical reform. The principle of enhancing actual participation in the liturgy «cannot be disputed» (Spellman), and the positive effect of «the pastoral work on the liturgy» (Ottaviani). They, along with other Council Fathers, were concerned that article 37 needed some clarification, but they were not opposed to genuine (one could say organic) progress in the area of liturgical reforms.

Only one bishop, Wilhelm Duschak, made an intervention that was revolutionary, in which he outlined his idea for an ecumenical «Mass of the World». But, as Dom Alcuin mentioned: «If we do read the Fathers’ interventions—all of them—it is simply impossible to assert that revolution (Duschakian or otherwise) was what they intended. Indeed, the debate on article 37 (50) proves the opposite. It shows that the Fathers accepted the principle that, so as to achieve a greater participatio actuosa a moderate reform of the Order of Mass was desirable.»

Dom Alcuin went on to point out that the work of Group 10 of the Consilium, who were responsible for the reform of the Ordo Missae, seems to have gone a long way beyond the intentions of the Council Fathers as expressed at Vatican II – where, almost right at the start of the discussion about the liturgy constitution, Bishop Henry Jenny, a member of the Preparatory and Conciliar Commissions on the Liturgy (and later of the Consilium) said that «The current Ordo Missae, which has grown up in the course of the centuries, certainly is to be retained» (General Congregation XII). ….

jul 142016
 

Sacra Liturgia UK har nylig hatt en interessant konferanse i London, og på NLM-bloggen har de offentliggjort referater fra konferansens fire dager.

Her er referatet fra første dag med (det svært mye omtalte) innledningsforedraget til kardinal Robert Sarah. Hele dette foredraget kan leses her.

Andre dag inneholder følgende referater:
The day began with Dom Alcuin Reid and his paper entitled On the Council Floor: The Council Fathers’ Debate of the Schema on the Sacred Liturgy, in which the question was posed: what did the Fathers of Vatican II think they were approving in Sacrosanctum Concilium – liturgical evolution or revolution? …

Dom Charbel Pazat de Lys then gave a paper entitled The Public Nature of the Liturgy, in which he examined the practical, sociological, institutional and christological meanings of the word «public». …

Prof. Peter Stephan’s paper was entitled The Vicissitudes of Liturgy and Architecture Shown at the Example of Berlin’s Cathedral of St Hedwig, in which he explored the «anti-liturgical modification» of historical churches. …

After lunch, Dr Jennifer Donelson (of NLM) gave her paper, Origins and Effects of the Missa Lecta: Priestly Musical Formation in a Low Mass Culture. …

A panel discussion on Sacred Music followed, which included Prof. William Mahrt, the publisher of NLM. There were lively discussions and exchanges regarding the best ways to introduce into a parish the singing of the propers and the resources available to help with this, along with other topics. …

Tredje dag er det referat fra:
Dr Clare Hornsby gave a lecture with the title: The Council of Florence of 1439: Diplomacy, Theology and the Arts in Early Renaissance Italy.

Fr Uwe Michael Lang was next to speak, with a paper entitled The Tridentine Liturgical Reform in Historical Perspective.

The next paper was delivered by Bishop Alan Hopes, entitled Sing a New Song to the Lord: Towards a Revised Translation of the Liturgy of the Hours.

The fourth paper of the day was by Prof. Joris Geldhof, entitled Liturgy Beyond the Secular.

The final paper of the day was «Especially in Mission Territories» (SC 38)? New Evangelisation and Liturgical (Reform of the) Reform was given by Dr Stephen Bullivant,

Fra fjerde dag er det følgende referater:
Prof. Helmut Hoping’s paper on one of the most fundamental aspects of our liturgy, Liturgy and the Triune God: Rethinking Trinitarian Theology.

Fr Michael Cullinan then gave us a slightly different perspective as a moral theologian in his paper The Ethical Character of the Mysteries: Observations from a Moral Theologian.

The next paper was given by Prof. David Fagerberg on Doing the World Liturgically: Stewardship of Creation and Care for the Poor.

The fourth talk was given by Mgr Andrew Burnham, on Divine Worship: The Missal and «the liturgical books proper to the Anglican Tradition» (Anglicanorum Coetibus, III).

Archbishop Salvatore Cordileone then offered some concluding reflections, summing up the talks and liturgies of the conference. He urged patience with regard to the upcoming work of the CDWDS regarding the question of the reform of the reform, but said that the celebration of the Mass ad orientem in the usus recentior would go a long way towards preparing the way for it, and reiterated Cardinal Sarah’s appeal to priests to begin celebrating Mass eastwards from the 1st Sunday of Advent this year. He encouraged all present to pay attention to the details of the liturgy in the celebration of it, holding up the London Oratory as an model and exemplar.

jul 132016
 

Det er litt underlig at hvilken vei presten står ved alteret har blitt så veldig kontroversielt i Den katolske kirke; i den lutherske og den anglikanske kirke (der prestene ofte(st) vender seg ad orientem) er det ikke slik. Og det handler jo også bare om hvilken vei presten vender seg ca 10 minutter i løpet av messen. På (den nokså liberale/ moederne) liturgibloggen Pray Tell fikk et innlegg om kardinal Sarahs forslag om at prestene bør vende seg ad orientem 148 kommentarer på tre dager før debatten ble stoppet.

I et annet innlegg på samme liturgiblogg kan vi lese ganske treffende i kommentar 35 og 36:

#35
… Cardinal Sarah said nothing controversial about ad orientem, unless ad orientem, the ancient and traditional Catholic practice, which is alive in the Church today, is controversial.

Eastern Catholics celebrate ad orientem. Catholics who offer the Mass of Pope Saint John XIII celebrate ad orientem. Catholics in the Ordinariates celebrate ad orientem. Catholic bishops and priests offer the Ordinary Form ad orientem.

Pope Francis has celebrated ad orientem.

The Orthodox celebrate ad orientem.

Never did Cardinal Sarah say even one word that should have led anyone to say that Pope Francis planned to implement ad orientem Mass at Advent.

There wasn’t anything “controversial” (unless an ancient and totally acceptable Catholic liturgical practice, which is alive today) about ad orientem. There isn’t anything controversial about promoting ad orientem.

Cardinal Sarah did nothing wrong. I also don’t accept the interpretation that the press release indicated that Pope Francis “slapped down” Cardinal Sarah. …

#36
If the explosion on the blogosphere in the last few days have shown anything, it is that promoting ad orientem it is highly controversial!

Note, I am not one to condemn ad orientem, nor have I done so. I have celebrated ad orientem. But I’m perfectly aware that promoting it – which I don’t do – is highly controversial.

I suppose one should that that it SHOULDN’T be controversial, that there’s NO REASON why it should be. But yet, it is. I state that as a fact, apart from my judgment of it.

jul 092016
 

På nettsidene til Den katolske kirke i Danmark ble det kunngjort en messe som skulle feires lørdag 25/6 i St Augustins kirke på Østerbro i København:

For kun anden gang i Danmark siden liturgireformen i 1969 fejres højtidelig pontifikalmesse (bispemesse) efter den ældre (ekstraordinære) form af liturgien. Koret vil blandt andet synge William Byrds smukke messe for fem stemmer.

I forbindelse hermed meddeler biskop Czeslaw Kozon også firmelsens sakramente efter det ekstraordinære ritual til 14 unge fra Danmark, Sverige og Tyskland.

En video viser deler av seremonien (se under) og på nettsidene til Sankt Karl Borromæus gruppen kan vi lese mer. Også på Jylland, i Randers litt nord for Århus, feires den tradisjonelle messen regelmessig, organisert av Sankt Knuds selskab.

jul 052016
 

Leder av liturgikongregasjonen, kardinal Robert Sarah, foreslo nylig (ganske overraskende må man nok si, og muligens også noe urealistisk) at alle prester bør «snu alteret» allerede fra første søndag i advent i år:

Cardinal Robert Sarah, the Vatican’s liturgy chief, has asked priests to begin celebrating Mass ad orientem, that is, facing east rather than towards the congregation.

The proposed reform is arguably the biggest liturgical announcement since Benedict XVI’s 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum gave greater freedom for priests to celebrate the Traditional Latin Mass.

Speaking at the Sacra Liturgia conference in London on Wednesday, the Guinean cardinal, who is Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship, addressed priests who were present, saying: “It is very important that we return as soon as possible to a common orientation, of priests and the faithful turned together in the same direction – eastwards or at least towards the apse – to the Lord who comes”.

The cardinal continued: “I ask you to implement this practice wherever possible.”

He said that “prudence” and catechesis would be necessary, but told pastors to have “confidence that this is something good for the Church, something good for our people”. …

Kardinal Sara sa også noe mer i dette foredraget:

… In his talk, Cardinal Sarah also said that Pope Francis had asked him to begin a study of “the reform of the reform”, that is of adapting the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council. The cardinal said the study would seek “to enrich the two forms of the Roman rite”.

Cardinal Sarah said that much liturgical study had suggested that some post-conciliar reforms “may have been put together according to the spirit of the times” and “gone beyond” of the Fathers of Vatican II, in Sacrosanctum Concilium, the constitution on the liturgy.

He said that some “very serious misinterpretations of the liturgy” had crept in, thanks to an attitude to the liturgy which placed man rather than God at the centre. …

jun 112016
 

Den nye festen for hl Maria Magdalena (les om det her) har til og med fått sin egen prefasjon – for «apostlenes apostel», les om det her – som så langt visst bare fins på latin. Kanskje noe latinkyndige kan foreslå en norsk oversettelse?

Vere dignum et iustum est,
æquum et salutáre,
nos te, Pater omnípotens,
cuius non minor est misericórdia quam potéstas,
in ómnibus prædicáre per Christum Dóminum nostrum.
Qui in hortu maniféstus appáruit Maríæ Magdalénæ,
quippe quae eum diléxerat vivéntem,
in cruce víderat moriéntem,
quæsíerat in sepúlcro iacéntem,
ac prima adoráverat a mórtuis resurgéntem,
et eam apostolátus offício coram apóstolis honorávit
ut bonum novæ vitæ núntium
ad mundi fines perveníret.
Unde et nos, Dómine, cum Angelis et Sanctis univérsis
tibi confitémur, in exsultatióne dicéntes:
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dóminus Deus Sábaoth.

jun 102016
 

I dag ble det kunngjort at pave Frans og Liturgikongregasjonen i Vatikanet har opphøyet minnedagen for den hellige Maria Magdalena til festdag – samme nivå som de fleste apostlene feires. Om dette kan vi lese på Vatikanets nettsider, bl.a.:

Archbishop Arthur Roche, secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, explains the meaning of the decree that will enable Mary Magdalene to be «celebrated» liturgically like the rest of the apostles. «The decision is situated in the current ecclesial context, which calls upon us to reflect more deeply on the dignity of women, the new evangelisation and the greatness of the mystery of divine mercy. …

… The archbishop took the opportunity to highlight two ideas inherent in the biblical and liturgical texts of the new feast, which may contribute to a better understanding of the current importance of a saint such as Mary Magdalene.

«On the one hand, she has the honour of being the ‘prima testis’ to the resurrection of the Lord, the first to see the empty tomb and the first to hear the truth of His resurrection. Christ has a special consideration and mercy for this woman, who shows her love for Him, looking for Him in the garden with anguish and suffering, with ‘lacrimas humilitatis’, as St. Anselm says in the aforementioned prayer. In this sense, I would like to show the difference between the two women present in the garden of Paradise, and in the garden of the Resurrection. The first disseminates death where there was life, and the second proclaims Life from a tomb, the place of death. … Likewise, it is in the garden of resurrection that the Lord says to Mary Magdalene, ‘Noli me tangere’. It is an invitation not only to Mary, but also to all the Church, to enter into an experience of faith that overcomes any materialistic appropriation or human understanding of the divine mystery. It has ecclesial importance! It is a good lesson for every disciple of Jesus: do not seek human securities and worldly honours, but faith in the Living and Risen Christ.»

«Precisely since she was an eyewitness to the Risen Christ, she was also the first to testify before the apostles. She fulfils the mandate the Risen Christ gives her: ‘go to my brothers and say to them … Mary Magdalene went and announced to the disciples, “I have seen the Lord”—and that he had said these things to her’. In this way she becomes, as is already known, an evangelist, or rather a messenger who announces the good news of the resurrection of the Lord; or, as Rabano Mauro and St. Thomas Aquinas said, ‘apostolorum apostola’, as she announces to the apostles what they in turn will announce to all the world. The Angelic Doctor is right to apply this term to Mary Magdalene: she is the witness to the Risen Christ and announces the message of the resurrection of the Lord, like the other apostles. Therefore it is right that the liturgical celebration of this woman should have the same level of festivity given to the apostles in the General Roman Calendar, and that the special mission of this woman be highlighted, as an example and model to every woman in the Church», concluded Archbishop Roche.

jun 052016
 

I dag er evangeliet hentet fra Lukas 7,11–17 – les alle tekstene her – og lyder slik:

På den tid gav Jesus seg på vei til byen Nain, og disiplene og en stor flokk mennesker fulgte ham. Som han nærmet seg byporten, møtte han et likfølge; det var en enkes eneste sønn som var død, og en stor mengde folk fra byen fulgte.

Da Herren fikk se kvinnen, ble han grepet av medlidenhet med henne og sa: «Ikke gråt.» Så gikk han bort og la hånden på båren. Bærerne stanset, og Jesus sa: «Unge mann, jeg befaler deg: Stå opp!» Da satte den døde seg opp og begynte å tale, og Jesus gav ham tilbake til hans mor.

Da ble alle grepet av ærefrykt, og de priste alle Gud, for, som de sa, «en stor profet er oppstått iblant oss – Gud har gjestet sitt folk». Og ryktet om dette kom ut i hele Jødeland og landet omkring.

Tissot_Son_at_Nain_new
Dette er en kjent tekst – bildet over er fra ca 1890 av den franske maleren James Tissot – som en søndag hvert år ble brukt i den katolske messen i over 1000 år (på 15. søndag etter pinse).

Etter 1970 er teksten dessverre nesten helt blitt borte; mellom 1997 og 2037 brukes den bare i 2013 og 2016, siden den (10. søndag år C) ellers blir hoppet over pga Treenighetsfesten eller Corpus Christi. Les mer om dette her.

jun 032016
 

I dag – fredag nesten tre uker etter pinse – feirer Den katolske kirke høytiden for Jesu hellige hjerte. Det er den tredje av – de to første er Treenighetsfesten og Corpus Christi – markeringene som understreker noe som oppfattes som ekstra viktig og sentralt, etter at pinsen egentlig har fullført evangeliet, og dermed den åpenbarende delen av kirkeåret. På katolsk.no kan man lese både om tekstene og bønnene for dagens messe, og om hvordan feiringen av Jesu hjerte vokste fram. Mht det siste leser vi bl.a.:

Helt fra apostlenes tid har det i Kirken vært en andakt for Guds kjærlighet og for Kristi kjærlighet, men dette kan ikke kalles andakt for Jesu helligste Hjerte i den forstand, ettersom den ikke vier noen oppmerksomhet til Jesu Hjerte som symbol på hans kjærlighet til menneskene. …..

Sacred-Heart-card-GermanDet er på 1000- og 1100-tallet vi finner de første umiskjennelige indikasjoner på en andakt for Jesu hellige Hjerte. Gjennom såret i siden nådde man gradvis Det sårede Hjerte, og såret i hjertet symboliserte kjærlighetens sår. Det var i den glødende atmosfæren i de benediktinske eller cisterciensiske klostrene, i en tankeverden preget av de hellige Anselm av Canterbury (ca 1033-1109) og Bernhard av Clairvaux (ca 1090-1153), at andakten vokste frem, selv om det er umulig å si positivt hva som var dens første tekster eller hvem som var dens første forkjempere. …

Fra 1200- til 1500-tallet skrev flere mystikere og åndelige forfattere om Jesu hjerte, og vanligvis, men ikke nødvendigvis, knyttet de det til hans sår, spesielt det etter lansen. Men de utviklet ingen andakt til Jesu hjerte som sådant. I denne perioden ble kulten fremmet, men det ser ikke ut til at den har blitt utviklet videre. …

På 1500-tallet begynte andakten for Jesu Hjerte å spre seg utenfor Rhinland, hvor den først startet, og fra Tyskland synes den å ha blitt tatt med av flere fromme ordensfolk i ulike ordener, blant annet jesuittene, som tok den med til misjonsland. ….

Bildet av Jesu Hjerte var overalt, fremfor alt takket være den fransiskanske andakten for De fem sår og jesuittenes vane med å plassere bildet på tittelsiden av sine bøker og på veggene i sine kirker. Likevel forble andakten individuell eller i det minste privat. Det skulle bli den hellige Johannes Eudes (1601-80) som gjorde den offentlig. …

Det var for den hellige Margareta Maria Alacoque (1647-90), en beskjeden nonne i Besøkelsesordenen (Ordo de Visititatione Beatae Mariae Virginis – OVM) som var grunnlagt av den hellige Frans av Sales, i deres kloster i Paray-le-Monial (ikke langt unna Taizé), at Jesus valgte å åpenbare seg og betro henne oppdraget å gi nytt liv til andakten for Hans Hjerte. …. Den 16. juni 1675 (oktavdagen for Kristi Legemsfest) hadde hun sin viktigste åpenbaring i Chapelle de la Visitation, som kalles hennes «store åpenbaring». Hun så Jesus Kristus, som påla henne å fremme tilbedelsen av hans hellige hjerte, symbol på hans kjærlighet til menneskene. …

Den 19. mai 1693 ga pave Innocent XII (1691-1700) avlat til alle som gikk til kommunion i en kirke i Visitasjonsordenen på den fredagen som Margareta Maria hadde fått beskjed om i åpenbaringen. ….. På alle kanter ble det søkt om å få innføre festen, noe som ble innvilget, og etter innstendige anmodninger fra de franske biskopene innførte den salige pave Pius IX (1846-78) festen for Jesu Hjerte for hele Kirken i august 1856 …

De store Jesu-Hjerte-budskapene fra pavene Pius XI, Pius XII (1939-58) og Paul VI (1963-78) underbygde festen. Den 15. mai 1956 utga pave Pius XII encyklikaen Hauerietis Aquas om Jesu hellige Hjerte. Den 15. mai 2006 sendte pave Benedikt XVI et brev til p. Peter Hans Kolvenbach SJ, jesuittenes ordensgeneral, i anledning femtiårsjubileet for denne encyklikaen. I sitt brev til p. Kolvenbach stadfestet pave Benedikt betydningen av andakten for Jesu hellige Hjerte. …

Alle de tre festene etter påsken: Treenighetsfesten, Kristi Legemsfest og Jesu-Hjerte-festen, stammer fra det burgundiske området rundt Cluny og Clairvaux og henviser på denne måten til sine røtter i den benediktinske og bernhardinske fromhet.

mai 292016
 

I forbindelse med prekenen i dagens messer (på Corpus Christi), så jeg litt på hva Den katolske Kirkes katekisme sier om eukaristien, og la bl.a. merke til nest siste punkt i oppsummeringen, der det står:

1418. Siden Kristus selv er til stede i alterets sakrament, skal Han æres med tilbedelse. «Å besøke Det Allerhelligste Sakrament er et bevis på takknemlighet, et tegn på kjærlighet og en tilbedelsesplikt overfor Kristus, vår Herre».

Festen for Corpus Christi handler i forholdsvis stor grad om tilbedelsen av Kristus i alteret hellige sakrament, både i, men mest utenfor messefeiringen. At sakramentet skal/må tilbes også utenfor selve messefeiringen, kan være en anstøtssten for protestanter som er iferd med å nærme seg Kirken, men også dette er en del av den katolske tro. Katekismen sier mer om dette aspektet ved eukaristien, som jeg tar med her: Les videre!

mai 292016
 

Thomas Aquinas skrev fem hymner til Festen for Corpus Christi (ca år 1264), (sekvensen) Lauda Sion Salvatorem, Pange lingua gloriosi, Sacris solemniis, Adoro te devote, og Verbum supernum prodiens. Denne siste ble skrevet til Laudes denne dagen, og de to siste vers er mest kjent – slik er det for flere av disse hymnene, Tantum ergo fra Pangue lingua og Panis angelicus fra Sacris solemniis.

Det nest siste verset av Verbum supernum prodiens begynner med ordene O salutaris Hostia. Den latinske teksten er:

O salutaris Hostia, quæ cæli pandis ostium: Bella premunt hostilia, da robur, fer auxilium.
Uni trinoque Domino sit sempiterna gloria, qui vitam sine termino nobis donet in patria. Amen.

Ragnhild Foss har overatt dette til nynorsk slik (katolsk salmebok nr. 458):

Du eine, sanne offerlam som opnar himmeldør for oss, fri oss frå ufred, krig og skam, ver styrken vår i naud og kross!
Trieining, du vår store Gud, i deg me livsens lukke fann. La oss ditt lov i heilagt skrud få syngja i vårt fedreland!

mai 282016
 

liturgibloggen Pray Tell kom det nylig et svært interessant innlegg om hvilken side av alteret presten bør stå – og innlegget er fulgt av (så langt) ca 60 interessante kommentarer. I innlegget står det bl.a.:

…there have been various voices from what we might call left, right, and center advocating or speaking positively about ad orientem, immediately after the Council and ever since. This includes, for example Joseph Jungmann (who was an architect of the conciliar reforms), Francis Mannion, and David Power. And of course Cardinal Ratzinger/Pope Benedict, who said a few decades ago that he favored the practice but did not favor switching things back because it would cause too much confusion. …

Men bakgrunnen for innlegget er noe mer dramatisk; kardinal Sarah, som leder Vatikanets liturgikongregasjon har nemlig i et intervju sterkt anbefalt at prestene feirer messen «ad orientem». Om dette sier innlegget bl.a.:

In a recent interview with the French Catholic magazine Famille Chrétienne, Cardinal Robert Sarah repeats many of the usual arguments in favor of the priest celebrating Mass ad orientem (“toward the east”) rather than facing the people, Catholic Herald reports. You can read the story there and get up to speed on the main arguments. …

One line from the cardinal caught my attention. The Second Vatican Council did not require priests to celebrate Mass facing the people, the cardinal correctly notes. But then he says: «As soon as we reach the moment when one addresses God – from the Offertory onwards – it is essential that the priest and faithful look together towards the east. This corresponds exactly to what the Council Fathers wanted.»

Of all the arguments for ad orientem – and there are valid arguments out there – this isn’t one of them. Anytime anyone makes a claim about what the Council Fathers wanted, alarm bells should go off for all of us. ….

I en av kommentarene til dette innlegget sies det riktignok at mange biskoper under Vatikankonsilet tok ordet og talte for at presten burde vende seg mot folkets under ordets del av messen, men de kom ikke med samme anbefaling mht til offertoriet, den eukaristiske bønn etc.

Les gjerne innlegget og kommentarene selv.

mai 272016
 

Det blir gradvis mer vanlig (etter noen tiårs opphold) å arrangere prosesjon med alterets hellige sakrament på Festen for Kristi legeme og blod / Kristi legemsfest / Corpus Christi, som feires torsdag etter Treenighetssøndagen, og oftest flyttes til søndag etter.

katolsk.no kan vi lese om hva som skjer i Norge på denne festen i år. De skriver: «Festen for Kristi legeme og blod, som i år i Norge feires 29. mai, er så smått i ferd med å utvikle seg til en uoffisiell katolsk nasjonaldag i Norge. Stadig flere menigheter benytter anledningen til å arrangere én stor fellesmesse med prosesjon istedenfor mange mindre feiringer, noen ganger i lånt kirke fordi den egne blir for liten. Noen benytter også dagen til å arrangere menighetsfest. De største feiringene finner sted i Bergen, Stavanger og Oslo, men mindre feiringer er spredt over det ganske land. Katolsk.no bringer her oversikten over de prosesjonene vi kjenner til.»

Jeg hilser disse prosesjonene velkommen, men er ikke så sikker på at det er nyttig å avlyse mange søndagsmesser for at flest mulig skal delta i prosesjonen. En opplevelse for snart ti år siden vaksinerte meg mot en slik praksis; en dag hvert år (ikke her i Oslo, og ikke på Corpus Christi) skulle hele menigheten samles i en annen, større (men ikke stor nok) kirke og absolutt alle andre messer den søndagen ble avlyst. Resultatet ble at over halve menigheten ikke kom i noen messe den søndagen – for den dagen var messen på et helt annet tidspunkt, på et annen språk, og på et annet sted enn vanlig etc. Jeg protesterte kraftig mot dette (tanken var på en måte god, men resultatene ble veldig dårlige), uten å bli hørt.

I oversikten på katolsk.no kan det se ut til at mange menigheter avlyser svært mange messer kommende søndag, for å sikre en felles deltagelse i én stor messe med påfølgende prosesjon. Det syns jeg er uheldig. Men hvis informasjonen på www.gudstjenestelisten.no er korrekt, ser det ut til at St Olav menighet i Oslo har funnet en nokså god balanse; de avlyser to messer kl 09.30 og fem kl 11, 12, 13, 14 og 15, men har likevel følgende messer denne søndagen: Kl. 0800 Messe på polsk, St.Olav domkirke, kl. 1100 Messe på norsk i Trefoldighetskirken, kl. 1600 Messe på polsk i St.Olav domkirke, kl. 1800 Messe på engelsk i St.Olav domkirke, kl. 1800 Messe på engelsk i St.Joseph kirke, kl. 1930 Messe på norsk i St.Olav domkirke.

OPPDATERING:
Kanskje overskrifta her heller burde vært: Prosesjon for en del eller messe for mange på Corpus Christi?

mai 262016
 

Lauda Sion Salvatorem is a sequence prescribed for the Roman Catholic Mass of Corpus Christi. It was written by St. Thomas Aquinas around 1264, at the request of Pope Urban IV for the new Mass of this Feast, along with Pange lingua, Sacris solemniis, Adoro te devote, and Verbum supernum prodiens, which are used in the Divine Office. The hymn tells of the institution of the Eucharist and clearly expresses the belief of the majority of Christians that the bread and wine become the body and blood of Jesus during the celebration of the Eucharist. Transubstantiation is the philosophical name given to the process which explains how this happens in Roman Catholic tradition. As with St. Thomas’ other three Eucharistic hymns, the last few stanzas are often used alone, in this case, the Ecce panis Angelorum.

Lauda Sion is one of only four medieval Sequences which were preserved in the Missale Romanum published in 1570 following the Council of Trent (1545–63)—the others being Victimae paschali laudes (Easter), Veni Sancte Spiritus (Pentecost), and Dies Irae (Requiem Masses). (A fifth, Stabat Mater, would later be appointed in 1727.) Before Trent many feasts had their own sequences. It is still sung today, though its use is optional in the post-Vatican II Ordinary form. The Gregorian melody is borrowed from the 11c sequence Laetabundi iubilemus attributed to Adam de Saint-Victor.

Teksten over er fra engelsk Wikipedia. Lytt gjerne til denne sekvensen og se den latinske teksten (over) og/eller les den norske oversettelsen (under).

Sion, pris din saliggjører, pris din hyrde og din fører, syng hans lov med sang og spill.
Hva du evner, skal du vise, ingen kan til gagns ham prise, ingen ord kan strekke til.
Brød som lever, og som tenner liv i den som brødet kjenner, gjenstand for vår hyldest er.
Siste kveld til sine venner ga han det med egne hender. Ingen tvil kan rommes her.
Lov skal klinge, lov skal lyde, lov skal glede, lov skal pryde hjertets jubelsang og ord,
For i dag vi feirer minnet, det som aldri bort kan svinne, om det første nattverdbord.
Påsken fra den gamle pakt viker for den nye makt, alt blir nytt ved Kongens bord.
Nye lov må gamle dømme, skyggen må for sannhet rømme, natt for lys på Herrens ord.
Det som Kristus den gang gjorde, bød han oss fra nattverdbordet gjøre for å minnes ham.
Og han ga en hellig lære: brød og vin skal offer være, som til frelse bæres fram.
Kristentroen vitner dette: brødet blir hans kjød med rette, vin forvandles til hans blod.
Ta det, se det, kan du ikke, det er skjult for våre blikke, mot natur, erkjent i tro.
Brød og vin er tegn, og ingen ser det som er skjult i tingen: største skatt på denne jord.
Kjød er føde, blodet drikke, Kristus hel, han deles ikke, hel i begge ting han bor.
Deles ikke når han nytes, minker ikke om han brytes, like hel til hver seg gir.
Nyter én ham, nyter mange, brødet tæres mange gange; ufortært han alltid blir.
Gode får det, onde får det, men så ulikt begge går det: én får liv, en annen død.
Godt er livet, ond er døden, begge fikk den samme føden, ulikt virker samme brød.
Brytes brødet, må du minnes. i hver del det hele finnes. Visshet her kan bare vinnes når du fullt og fast det tror.
Ytre hylle kan få lyte, tingen selv kan du ei bryte. Herren som du får å nyte: alltid ens og like stor.
Se det engelbrød som lønner vandringsmannens fromme bønner, sanne brød for Herrens sønner, ikke slengt til hunder små.
Tegn for dette har vår viden: Isak engang, Lammet siden, og fra ørkenvandringstiden manna som på marken lå.
Gode hyrde, sanne føde, Jesu, tilgi oss vår brøde, vern oss, du, i all vår møde, hjelp oss gjennom verdens øde fram til alle goders land.
Du som allting vet og veier, her i dødens dal oss leier, gi at vi må vinne seier og med dem som arven eier, benkes hist med glede kan.
Amen. Alleluja.

mai 232016
 

John Allen skriver en artikkel med overskrift ‘Liturgy wars’ have gone quiet, but they’ve hardly gone away, der han bl.a. sier:

This week, a press release washed up in my in-box from the International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL), about a recent visit to their offices by a Vatican official. ICEL is a mixed commission of bishops’ conferences in countries where English is used in the liturgy, and its job is to translate texts for worship.

My finger was poised on the delete button, when it suddenly struck me just how remarkable it is that ICEL is no longer a hot potato. Not so long ago, at the peak of what came to be known as the “liturgy wars,” that definitely wasn’t the case.

The term “liturgy wars” refers to a series of battles over the sound, look and feel of Catholic worship in English, which crested in the 1990s and 2000s.

The battle lines broke between progressives in favor of a reformed, “Vatican II” style, reflecting modern sensibilities and new theological insights, and conservatives who felt the post-Vatican II overhaul of the liturgy gave too much away to secular modernity, often employing pretty-sounding ecumenical formulae dubious in terms of fidelity to both tradition and the actual Latin text.

Adding fuel to the fire were two other factors:

In part, liturgical controversies pivot on aesthetics – judgments about what’s poetic vs. pedantic, what’s artful vs. awful, what sounds or looks good. Since all that’s basically subjective, there’s just no way to make everyone happy. Unlike other topics, where most people don’t consider themselves experts, everybody’s been to Mass, and so everybody has an opinion about how it ought to be done.

Incalculable hours were spent over two decades debating issues such as inclusive language, … or whether the Latin phrase pro multis in the Eucharistic prayer should be “for all” or “for many.” Countless conferences were held, essays written, blogs posted, and it seemed for a while the debate would never end. …

Allen syns altså at debatten har roet seg veldig mye, men bildet (under) som illustrerer artikkelen, viser likevel minst tre liturgiske feil: Presten skal dekke til skjorten/ halsen med en hvit amikt, han skal ikke ha stolaen over messehakelen, og diakonen ved hans side skal ikke løfte hendene til bønn.

priest-at-altar

liturgibloggen Pray Tell har man tatt opp tråden fra denne artikkelen, og folk er sterkt uenige. Noen liker fortsatt den nye engelske oversettelsen av messen svært dårlig, mens en nokså nyordinert prest skriver:

I was ordained to the priesthood in 2013. I didn’t have to memorize the presidential prayers of the previous translation because the texts for MR3 were, thankfully, already out. So I have ONLY presided with the present translation, though I had been Catholic for the previous three decades, too.

The VAST majority of younger priests I know (American Midwest and South) are grateful for the new translation and consider it a marked improvement over the previous edition. Not that it doesn’t have its substantial flaws, but an overall improvement. I find that priests and liturgists have strong feelings about it, but most people have settled into it and are fine with it. I agree that changing it again any time very soon would be a mistake, even if another translation was significantly better.

I find the present translation to have substantially better, richer imagery, but it is more difficult to verbalize. …