feb 062016
 

holy_eucharist Jeg har lest ferdig boka The Holy Eucharist – The World’s Salvation, der forfatteren, Joseph de Sainte-Marie, OCD, er nokså kritisk til praksis som har kommet etter 1970 mht konselebrasjon av messen. Han er ikke mot konselebrasjon, og finner det bl.a. naturlig at prester konselebrerer med sin biskop ved spesielle anledninger, men han finner det ikke naturlig at mange prester skal konselebrere messer til stadighet, heller enn å feire egne messer. Han tar opp spørsmål som; blir ett eller flere messeoffer båret fram når mange prester konselebrerer en messe? Og han skiller tydelig mellom seremenoiell konselebrasjon (når f.eks. en biskop feirer messe med assisterende diakoner og en MC), og sakramental konselebrasjon (når flere prester deltar i konsekrasjonen).

Prof. Peter Kwasniewski har skrevet en grundig og positiv anmeldelse av boka på The New Liturgical Movement, og han åpner anmeldelsen slik:

Let me begin with the bottom line. This is the most important book ever to appear in English on the subject of concelebration. It ought to be read by every bishop, priest, religious, teacher of liturgy, and seminary formator, and absolutely anyone with a desire to learn about this complex and sometimes contentious issue.

Fr. Joseph de Sainte-Marie (1931–1985), a professor and specialist in Carmelite spirituality at the Pontifical Theological Faculty ‘Teresianum’ in Rome, published this substantial collection of his writings in 1982, only a few years before his death. One may regret that it has taken over 30 years for an English translation to appear — or better, one may rejoice that it has finally come out for the benefit of those who do not read French. Lest a nearly 600-page tome prompt any dismay, I hasten to repeat that this is a gathering together of a dozen finely-chiseled essays on the Mass and the Holy Eucharist, with special attention to concelebration. …

Har tar også med innholdfortegnelsen til boka:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction (xi)
Foreword (xvii)

Part I: A Disputed Question
1. Reflections and Questions on the Subject of Concelebration (3)
2. A Critical Note on a ‘Theology of Concelebration’ (29)
3. Concelebration: Sensus Fidei and Theology (81)

Part II: The Historical Inquiry
4. Concelebration: The History of a History (123)
5. Concelebration: An Historical Summary (179)
6. Eucharistic Concelebration in the Magisterium of the Second Vatican Council (203)
7. ‘Useless and Superfluous Masses’ (273)
8. The Church Asks for the Multiplication of Masses (297)

Part III: Theological Reflection
9. ‘Sacrificium Missae’ (323)
10. The Liturgy: Mystery, Symbol, and Sacrament (355)
11. The Mass: Meal, ‘Blessing’, Congregation, or Sacrifice? (425)
12. The Celebration and Multiplication of the Sacrifice (483)

Conclusion (539)

jan 312016
 

sexagesima

I den tradisjonelle kalender feires i dag søndag sexagesima; såmannssøndagen, og vi hører følgende evangelium:

Luk. 8, 4-15.
På den tid da det hadde samlet seg mye folk, og det løp mange fra byene til Jesus, sa han i en lignelse: «En såmann gikk ut og sådde sin sæd, og da han sådde, falt noe langs med veien og ble tråkket ned, og himmelens fugler åt det opp. Og noe falt på stengrunn, og da det vokste opp, visnet det fordi det ikke hadde væte. Og noe falt mellom torner, og tornene vokste opp sammen med det og kvalte det. Og noe falt i god jord, og da det vokste opp, ga det hundre fold.» Da han hadde sagt dette, ropte han: «Den som har ører å høre med, han høre.» Men hans disipler spurte ham hva denne lignelsen skulle bety. Han sa til dem: «Dere skal få vite hemmeligheten i Guds rike; men de andre får det i lignelser, forat de skal se og likevel ikke se, høre og ikke forstå. Dette er lignelsen: Sæden er Guds ord. Det langs med veien er de som hører, men så kommer djevelen og tar ordet bort fra deres hjerte, så de ikke skal tro og bli frelst. Det på stengrunnen er de som tar imot ordet med glede når de hører det, men de har ingen rot; de tror for en tid, men i prøvestunden faller de fra. Men det som falt mellom torner, er de som hører, men kveles mens de vandrer under sorger og rikdom og livets lyst, og bærer ikke frukt. Men det i den gode jorden er de som hører ordet med et godt og edelt hjerte og tar vare på det, og de bærer frukt i tålmod.»

Om denne tesketn skriver Den hellige Gregor den store (til Matutin):

Homily by Pope St Gregory the Great. 5th on the Gospels.
Dearly beloved brethren, the passage from the Holy Gospel which ye have just heard, needeth not so much that I should explain it, as that I should seek to enforce its lesson. The Truth Himself hath explained it, and, after that, it beseemeth not man’s frailty to fritter away His exposition by any further comment. But there is, in that very explanation by the Lord, somewhat, which it behoveth us well to weigh. If it were but we who bade you believe that by the seed is signified the word; by the field, the world; by the birds, the devils; and by the thorns, riches ye would perchance doubt of the truth of our explanation. Therefore the Lord Himself hath vouchsafed to give this explanation, and that, not for this parable only, but that ye may know in what manner to interpret others, whereof He hath not given the meaning.

jan 302016
 

Jeg har begynt å lese boka The Holy Eucharist – The World’s Salvation, av Joseph de Sainte-Marie, OCD. Den handler om konselabrasjon av messen; hvordan det har foregått gjennom tidene, og hvorvidt det er en god praksis eller ikke.

holy_eucharistAmazon skriver om boka bl.a.:

The present book, originally published in French, and now in English with a new foreword by Dom Alcuin Reid OSB, is a splendid example ante litteram of the task of the Hermeneutic of Continuity so courageously undertaken by Pope Benedict XVI. Without calling for a change in the post-Conciliar discipline of the Latin Church, the author offers a complete and trenchant historical and dogmatic critique of the recent neglect of the individually celebrated Mass in favour of concelebration.

The discipline of the church after Sacrosanctum Concilium, up until the 1982 Code of Canon Law and the General Instruction of the Roman Missal for the third edition of the Missal of Paul VI, has always asserted the freedom of priests to celebrate individually, yet the liturgical and theological atmosphere of seminaries and religious communities has rarely favoured this freedom.

Here is a careful discussion of the value of the multiplication of celebrations of the Eucharist, in the light both of the nature of the Eucharistic Sacrifice itself and of the theology of its fruits. A meticulous study of the history of the practice of concelebration shows that the present practice of daily concelebration, especially among simple priests without their Ordinary presiding, far from being a return to an ancient norm, is in fact a new development.

The author concludes with a carefully nuanced set of practical proposals which, while giving to concelebration its due place, would serve to make better use of the infinite riches contained in the Holy Sacrifice. This conclusion may be summed up by the ancient prayer over the gifts found in both forms of the Roman Mass and quoted in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council: As often as the memorial of this Victim is celebrated, the work of our redemption is accomplished. May the careful examination of this beautifully reasoned study lead to a renewed sense of the efficacy of the Church’s Offering and of its frequent and devout celebration by her priests.

jan 172016
 

baumstark_liturgy En svært velutdannet tysker, Carl Anton Joseph Maria Dominikus Baumstark, skrev en bok i 1921, som jeg nettopp har lest. Om ham kan vi lese:

Carl Anton Joseph Maria Dominikus Baumstark (4 August 1872, Konstanz – 31 May 1948, Bonn) was a German Orientalist, philologist and liturgist. His main area of study was Oriental liturgical history, its development and its influence on literature, culture and art.

He studied classical and Oriental philology, obtaining his habilitation for both subjects in 1898 at Heidelberg. In 1899, he relocated to Rome, where in 1901, he became an editor of the academic journal Oriens Christianus. Later on, he worked for 15 years as an instructor at a Roman Catholic secondary school in Sasbach, Baden.

In 1921 he became an honorary professor in Bonn, then served as a professor of Semitic studies and comparative liturgal science at Nijmegen (from 1923), followed by a professorship of Arabic and Islamic studies at the University of Utrecht (from 1926). From 1930 to 1935, he was a professor of Oriental studies at the University of Münster.

Om boka, som måtte vente 90 år en engelsk oversettelse, kan vi lese på amazon.co.uk:

In 1921, Anton Baumstark delivered two lectures on the development of the Roman Rite to a gathering at the Abbey of Maria Laach. Abbot Ildefons Herwegen offered to publish those lectures, but Baumstark decided to write a book on the topic instead, which was published two years later as On the Historical Development of the Liturgy. It would be another sixteen years before he produced Comparative Liturgy, for which he is better known. Together the two books lay out Baumstark’s liturgical methodology. Comparative Liturgy presents his method; On the Historical Development of the Liturgy offers his model. For nearly a century, On the Historical Development of the Liturgy has been valued by specialists in the field of liturgical studies, both for its description of comparative liturgy and for the portrayal of patterns Baumstark discerns in liturgical development. Also significant are the hypotheses Baumstark proposes and the evidence he brings to bear on problems in liturgical history. In this annotated edition, Fritz West provides the first English translation of this work by Anton Baumstark.

Boka var interessant nok, men jeg leste bare i liten grad de mange og lange kommentarene til oversetteren, så da ble den ikke så mye mer enn halvparten av de 315 sidene den egentlig inneholder.

jan 102016
 

jesu_daap

«Hodie caelesti sponso iuncta est Ecclesia, quoniam in Iordane lavit eius crimina.
Currunt cum munere Magi ad regales nuptias et ex aqua facto vino laetantur convivia.
Baptizat miles Regem, servus Dominum suum, Joannes Salvatorem.
Aqua Iordanis stupuit, columba protestatur. Paterna vox audita est:
Filius meus hic est, in quo bene complacui. Ipsum audite«.

“Today the Church is joined to the heavenly bridegroom, because he has washed her sins away in the Jordan. The Magi hasten to the royal wedding with gifts and the guests are gladdened with the water turned to wine. The soldier baptizes the King, the servant his Lord, John the Savior. The water of the Jordan is amazed, the dove bears witness. The voice of the Father is heard: This is my Son, with whom I am well pleased. Listen to him.”

Sandro Magister presenterer denne teksten fra den ambrosianske liturgien i starten av et innlegg der han presenterer:

… all fifteen of the baptismal homilies delivered by Joseph Ratzinger in the six years of his pontificate, at the Easter Vigil and on the Sunday of the Baptism of Jesus.

They are “mystagogical” homilies, of initiation into the mystery of baptism. Like those of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, of Saint Ambrose of Milan, of other Fathers of the Church.

It is an anthology collected for the first time here, of extraordinary richness. As can be perceived from the passages of each homily as they gradually unfold.

Pave Benedikts prekener er fra påskenatt 2006-2012 og fra festen for Jesu dåp 2006-2013. Her er et utdrag fra påskenatt 2012:

… Through the sacrament of baptism and the profession of faith, the Lord has built a bridge across to us, through which the new day reaches us. The Lord says to the newly-baptized: Fiat lux – let there be light. God’s new day – the day of indestructible life, comes also to us. Christ takes you by the hand. From now on you are held by him and walk with him into the light, into real life. For this reason the early Church called baptism «photismos» – illumination.

Why was this? The darkness that poses a real threat to mankind, after all, is the fact that he can see and investigate tangible material things, but cannot see where the world is going or whence it comes, where our own life is going, what is good and what is evil. The darkness enshrouding God and obscuring values is the real threat to our existence and to the world in general. …

jan 102016
 

monty_sense_of_sacred_l
Jeg har nå lest gjennom mesteparten av boka A Sense of the Sacred: Roman Catholic Worship in the Middle Ages, av James Monti. Den har vært ganske interessant, men jeg har ikke lest alle delene av den like grundig. Boka trekker fram liturgier fra store deler av Europa; Spania, England, Roma, og også land som Polen, Litauen og Finland – stort sett liturgier fra 13-, 14- og 15-hundretallet. Første del av boka tar for seg de sju sakramantene, neste del viktige dager i kirkeåret, og tredje del andre viktige liturgier, som pavevalg og -innsettelse, helgenkåring o.a.

Hvis man kjenner den tradisjonelle liturgien (fra 1962), som jeg gjør f.eks.når det gjelder selve messen og også dåpsliturgien, gir ikke denne boka så mye ny informasjon, men den viser en del små varianter fra land til land – fra tida før den katolske liturgien ble mer strømlinjeforma etter konsilet i Trent. Hvis man derimot ikke kjenner den tradisjonelle liturgien, vil det meste av materialet som presenteres her være ganske nytt og spennende.

jan 062016
 

monty_sense_of_sacred Jeg har startet på et ganske stort verk (650 s), om katolske liturgier (både messen og andre liturgier, dåp, konfirmasjon etc) i middelalderen: A Sense of the Sacred: Roman Catholic Worship in the Middle Ages, av James Monti.

Ignatius press presenterer boka slik:

This incomparable volume presents a comprehensive exploration and explanation of medieval liturgical celebrations. The reverent prayers, hymns and rubrics used in the Middle Ages are described in detail and interpreted through the commentary of scholars from the same time period, the era which is also known as the «Age of Faith».

Collected here is a wide range of ceremonies, encompassing the seven sacraments, the major feasts of the liturgical year (such as Christmas, Easter, and Corpus Christi), and special liturgical rites (from the coronation of the pope to the blessing of expectant mothers). The sacred celebrations have been drawn from countries across western and central Europe-from Portugal to Poland-but particular attention has been given to liturgical texts of medieval Spain, which until now have received relatively little attention from scholars.

Historian James Monti has done exhaustive research on medieval liturgical manuscripts, early printed missals, and the writings of medieval liturgists and theologians so that the treasures they contain can inspire a sense of the sacred in future generations of Catholics.

Et par anmeldere sier om boka:

«James Monti’s treatise is an astonishing achievement, a book that can and will shape a new generation of intellectuals who are serious about the Catholic liturgy. Despite the title, this book is not only about medieval liturgy. It’s about inspiring the creation of, and the provision of access to, truly sacred spaces in our time, even in a world that seems so barren of them. My own special interest is in Gregorian chant, but Monti’s book helps broaden the picture to include a spiritual panorama of extraordinary breadth and depth. We have so much to learn from the past and so much to work toward for a bright and beautiful future of recaptured truth.»

«Among the ambiguous legacy of the Liturgical Movement of the twentieth century is the neglect and incomprehension of medieval liturgy. This book is a welcome contribution towards redressing this imbalance. James Monti recovers the tradition of mystical commentary on the sacred rites, a common heritage of East and West, and enriches it with his vast historical erudition. This volume will serve as a useful resource for anyone who wishes to enter into the spirit of the liturgy that shaped a millennium of Christian history.»

jan 052016
 

lang_voice_of_church De to bøkene jeg nettopp har lest av Lang er The Voice of the Church at Prayer: Reflections on Liturgy and Language og Signs of the Holy One: Liturgy, Ritual, and Expression of the Sacred. To gode bøker, men det er nokså korte (og for det meste enkle), så det var ikke så mye ny informasjon for meg i dem.

Den første boka beskrives slik hos ignatius.com:

Pope Benedict XVI has made the liturgy a central theme of his pontificate, and he has paid special attention to the vitally important role of language in prayer. This historical and theological study of the changing role of Latin in the Roman Catholic Church sheds light on some of the Holy Father’s concerns and some of his recent decisions about the liturgy.

The Fathers of the Second Vatican Council allowed for extended use of the vernacular at Mass, but they maintained that Latin deserved pride of place in the Roman Rite. The outcome, however, was that modern translations of the prayers of the Mass replaced the Latin prayers.

What was the reason for the Council’s decision and why is there now a desire for greater use of Latin in Catholic worship? Why have some post-conciliar English translations of the prayers of the Mass been replaced?

Fr. Lang answers these questions by first analyzing the nature of sacred language. He then traces the beginnings of Christian prayer to the Scriptures and the Greek spoken at the time of the apostles. Next he recounts the slow and gradual development of Latin into the sacred language of the Western Church and its continuing use throughout the Middle Ages. Finally, he addresses the rise of modern languages and the ongoing question of whether the participation of the laity at Mass is either helped or hindered by the use of Latin.

lang_signs_of_holy

Den andre boka er beskrevet slik:

Catholic liturgy is far more than its texts. It is a synthesis that also includes several other elements—gesture, music, art, and architecture—which are aspects of the non-verbal language of the sacred and are what make the liturgy beautiful.

Father Lang’s consideration of the beauty of the liturgy addresses the modern notion that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, that the experience of beauty is entirely subjective. This idea makes it difficult to articulate criteria for what is beautiful, yet sacred liturgy does indeed have objective measures for evaluating its principal elements. Reflecting upon these and quoting from authoritative Church documents, Father Lang discusses sacred music, art, and architecture, and demonstrates how the beauty of these elements makes present the sacred.

Pope Benedict XVI said, “The greatness of the liturgy depends—we shall have to repeat this frequently—on its non-spontaneity.” Continuous liturgical experimentation is unable to induce a sense of meaning or peace, writes Father Lang, because novelty does not satisfy the yearning for the Transcendent within the human psyche, which is rarely far from the surface.

jan 032016
 

daily_sacrifice Jeg har nå lest ferdig ei bok jeg må innrømme at jeg ikke likte noe særlig. Det er Sacrifice Unveiled, The True Meaning of Christian Sarifice, skrevet av Robert Daly, SJ. Boka ble utgitt i 2009 men forfatteren (født i 1993) har visst arbeidet med offer-temaet siden 60-tallet, og visst oppdaget mye nytt via fenomenoligiske og mimetiske teorier, og en grunnleggende forståelse av at offeret (og eukaristien) er Trinitarisk (hva nå det skal bety). I praksis fører det til at det er lite igjen av katolske forståelse av Kristi offer, og av eukaristien.

Daly har også skrevet en kortere framstilling av det boka handler om, og derfra siterer jeg:

… Traditional Western atonement theory — at least in its extreme, but all-too common forms — ultimately reduces to something like the following caricature: (1) God’s honor is damaged by sin; (2) God demanded a bloody victim to pay for this sin; (3) God is assuaged by the victim; (4) the death of Jesus the victim functioned as a payoff that purchased salvation for us.

Such a theory is literally monstrous in some of its implications. For when it is absolutized or pushed to its “theo-logical” conclusions and made to replace the Incarnation as central Christian doctrine, it tends to veil from human view (from Protestants as well as from Catholics) the merciful and loving God of biblical revelation. Despite my books and articles on the subject, I had for many years no satisfactory answer to this problem.

That changed when, serendipitously forced to edit Ed Kilmartin’s last book, I discovered the trinitarian understanding of sacrifice to which I now turn. Authentic Christian, that is, Trinitarian Understanding of Sacrifice Constantly fine-tuning my own understanding of it, … First of all, Christian sacrifice is not some object that we manipulate; it is not primarily a ceremony or ritual; nor is it something that we “do” or “give up.” For it is, first and foremost, something deeply personal: a mutually self-giving event that takes place between persons. Actually it is the most profoundly personal and interpersonal act of which a human being is capable or in which a human being can participate.

It begins in a kind of first “moment,” not with us but with the self-offering of God the Father in the gift-sending of the Son. Christian sacrifice continues its “process of becoming” in a second “moment,” in the self-offering “response” of the Son, in his humanity and in the power of the Holy Spirit, to the Father and for us. Christian sacrifice continues its coming-to-be, and only then does it begin to become Christian sacrifice in our lives when we, in human actions that are empowered by the same Spirit that was in Jesus, begin to enter into that perfect, en-spirited, mutually self-giving, mutually self-communicating personal relationship that is the life of the Blessed Trinity. …..

des 292015
 

Det tredje eksempelet fra artikkelen jeg allerede har vist til, er biskop Edward Slattery i Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Han sier at han nesten alltid når han feirer messe i sin domkirke (de siste fem år) har han feiret messen «vendt samme vei som folket». Vider kan vi lese:

Bishop Slattery sees Cardinal Sarah’s recent liturgical remarks as a continuation of what Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger taught, especially in The Spirit of the Liturgy, while serving as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith prior to his election as Pope Benedict XVI. This, in turn, is seen by Bishop Slattery as a continuation of what the Fathers of Vatican II taught: “It’s nothing new, really. It’s not only a decades-old tradition, but a centuries-old tradition of the Church that has solid theological and practical foundations.”

It is common sense to Bishop Slattery, who recalls simple rules of communication: “When I’m speaking to someone, I usually face that person. So when I’m giving a sermon, I face the people, because they are the ones I’m addressing. When I’m in prayer — especially offering Jesus to the Father at the altar — I’m addressing the Father, so it is no wonder that I should be facing him, rather than the people.”

Bishop Slattery believes authentic participation is not facilitated by the priest facing the people at these times, because then the priest becomes the central focus … “The priest is supposed to lead the people in Christ to the Father,” the bishop added, “yet when the priest faces the people, he becomes a locked — rather than an open — door. Instead of thinking about Christ going to the Father, the faithful are thinking about the personality of the priest.”

des 282015
 

Kardinal Robert Sarah er prefekt for Liturgikongregasjonen i Vatikanet, og skrev i juni i år om alterets og prestens retning i kirkerommet. Vatikankonsilet sa ikke noe om at alteret skulle snus, og faktisk er bedre at presten ikke har en så dominerende rolle i messen at han står og sitter rett foran menigheten, og vender seg mot dem under hele messen. Slik omtales det han skriver:

… The topic drawing most attention in the article was the direction of liturgical prayer — specifically, how the priest and people should be facing the same way during many parts of the Mass.

While some see this as a return to a “pre-Vatican II” liturgy, Cardinal Sarah showed it is quite the opposite — that it is, in fact, consonant with conciliar teachings. …. The African cardinal explained that “it is in full conformity with the conciliar constitution — indeed, it is entirely fitting — for everyone, priest and congregation, to turn together to the east during the penitential rite, the singing of the Gloria, the orations and the Eucharistic Prayer, in order to express the desire to participate in the work of worship and redemption accomplished by Christ.”

Cardinal Sarah emphasized that the priest must become the “instrument that allows Christ to shine through.” In the pursuit of this goal, he references Pope Francis remarking that the celebrant is not the host of a show, nor should he be seeking affirmation from the congregation, as if the primary concern of worship were a dialogue between the priest and assembly.
On the contrary, Cardinal Sarah believes that in order to enter into the true conciliar spirit, self-effacement is necessary for the priest who leads public worship. This self-effacement is implicit in the rubrics of the Roman Missal, which presume the priest will not be facing the congregation through the entirety of the Mass.

Dette har jeg tatt fra samme artikkel som jeg nevnte i går.

des 272015
 

Jeg reiser ganske snart til utlandet igjen, og vil fortsette å lese om liturgiens utvikling – mest fram til ca år 1600, men jeg ser også på enkelte nyere temaer. Ett av disse helt nye temaene er hvilken vei presten og alteret skal vende seg under under messen – eller mer presis under deler av messen, for presten bør jo vende seg jo mot menighetslemmene når han snakker til dem. Jeg ser nå litt på hvorfor den liturgiske bevegelsen etter hvert (kanskje rundt 1930) begynte å tenke på å «snu alterne», noe vel ingen hadde tenkt på på langt over 1000 år (og knapt nok før den tid).

Jeg kom over denne artikkelen som tar opp dette temaet. En prest i Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, har i sin menighet flyttet alteret tilbake til den opprinnelige plassen, undervist menigheten om dette, og om dette kan vi lese i artikkelen:

This traditional direction of liturgical prayer, referred to as ad orientem (facing east), had been nearly ubiquitous before the Second Vatican Council, yet almost vanished after it. This left most Catholics feeling the Council called for the priest to face the congregation, yet this was just that — a feeling — rather than a correct perception. None of the 16 conciliar documents contains an endorsement, let alone a mention, of the practice of the priest facing the congregation (versus populum) during the prayers of the Mass.

When Father Gawronski points this out to parishioners, he finds them to be generally receptive to it. “Old St. Patrick’s” worshippers have found his ad orientem Masses to be coherent and meaningful expressions of prayer. Rather than thinking of Father Gawronski as “having his back to the people,” parishioners see his positioning as the Church intends, expressive of the unity of the priest and congregation in their quest for God.

Father Gawronski believes the whole point of ad orientem worship is to demonstrate that the entire community is on the same page by facing the same God in prayer. …

des 232015
 

Denne søndagen feires søndag i juleoktaven etter den tradisjonelle kalenderen, i St Hallvard kirkes kapell kl 08.00.

Søndagens inngangsvers ser slik ut: «Mens dyp taushet lå over alle ting og natten var rukket midtveis i sitt løp. kom ditt allmektige Ord, Herre, ned fra den himmelske kongsstol. Herren er Konge, han har kledd seg i herlighet; han har ikledd seg styrke, og omgjordet seg. »

Og julepresfasjon (som brukes i denne messen) ser slik ut:

I sannhet verdig og rett er det, riktig og gagnlig at vi alltid og overalt takker deg, hellige Herre, allmektige Fader, evige Gud. For ved det menneskevordne Ords mysterium er det nye lys av din klarhet strålt fram for vår sjels øyne, så vi, når vi synlig erkjenner Gud, ved ham blir dradd til å elske det usynlige. Og derfor synger vi med engler og erkeengler, med troner og herredømmer og med hele den himmelske hærskare din herlighets pris, idet vi uten stans istemmer:

LES ALLE SØNDAGENS TEKSTER HER.

Neste TLM blir 31. januar (5. søndag i mnd). Da feires søndag sexagesima. Se oversikten her.

des 092015
 

Lvering_Sacrifice_Community Jeg har lest ferdig Matthew Leverings bok Sacrifice and Community, som han avslutter på denne måten (inkludert et sentralt og interessant sitat fra pave Benedikt):

… As Dostoevsky writes, «And so, man must unceasingly feel suffering [because of man’s sin], which is compensated for by the heavenly joy of fulfilling the law, that is, by sacrifice.»

In exploring Eucharistic theology in this book, I have argued that such radical communion is attained most fully on earth in the Eucharist, which as our sacrificial sharing in Christ’s sacrifice provides a foretaste of the radical communion that is heaven. In the sacrifice-sacrament of the Eucharist, we learn charity by offering with Christ his own saving sacrifice. The sacrament of the Eucharist is a “school” of charity; it builds the Church by enabling us to enact Christ’s sacrifice with him. In the liturgy of the Eucharist, we learn “Jesus Christ and him sacrificed” and thereby we “put on the whole armor of God”. …

… All aspects – theological and liturgical – of the Eucharist should therefore express our Eucharistic sharing in Christ’s cruciform Godwardness, which deifies us. Joseph Ratzinger has described the opposite situation, in which the liturgy of the Eucharist, not understood “ecstatically” as a sacrifice, finds its ground in itself rather than in God:

“The turning of the priest toward the people has turned the community into a self-enclosed circle. In its outward form, it no longer opens out on what lies ahead and above, but is locked into itself. The common turning toward the East was not a «celebration toward the wall»; it did not mean that the priest «had his back to the people»: the priest himself was not regarded as so important. For just as the congregation in the synagogue looked together toward Jerusalem, so in the Christian Liturgy the congregation looked together «toward the Lord». As one of the fathers of Vatican II’s Constitution on the Liturgy, J. A. Jungmann, put it, it was much more a question of priest and people facing in the same direction, knowing that together they were in a procession toward the Lord. They did not close themselves into a circle, they did not gaze at one another, but as the pilgrim People of God they set off for the Oriens, for the Christ who comes to meet us.”

I would add that this “procession toward the Lord” advances only insofar as it is cruciform, that is to say insofar as the communion of the pilgrim People of God arises in and through Christ’s saving sacrifice and our Eucharistic (sacrificial) participation in it. …

des 062015
 

Levering_Sacrifice_Community_l Jeg har akkurat lest ferdig kapittel 2 i Matthew Leverings bok Sacrifice and Community (som jeg skrev om her), et kapittel han kaller The Eucharist and Expiatory Sacrifice. Her sier han først at reformert jødedom og noen moderne kristne teologer egentlig ikke ønsker å snakke om soning for synd i det hele tatt. Levering, derimot, siterer Aquinas og Paulus svært grundig og viser at og hvordan menneskenes synder måtte sones for Gud, og hvordan Kristi offer på korset gjorde akkurat dette. Deretter knytter han dette sonofferet til eukaristien, og viser hvordan dette offeret gjentas i messens hellige offer «not as a distinct oblation, but a commemoration of that sacrifice which Chist offered». Og så avslutter han kapittelet slik:

… avoiding an idealist account of the Eucharist does require recognizing as the fulfillment of the «practice of Israel,» the expiatory character of Christ’s sacrifice within the created order constituted by relationships of justice. The Eucharist as a sacramental-sacrificial participation in Christ’s expiatory sacrifice, configures and nourishes Christ’s mystical body … (p 94)

des 032015
 

Jeg har, som jeg skrev i går, begynt å lese Matthew Leverings bok Sacrifice and Community: Jewish Offering and Christian Eucharist. Her skriver Levering om sakramental/eukaristisk realisme eller idealisme, og starter med å undersøke hvordan Det nye testamente og den første kristne liturgien bygger på jødenes forståelse og tempeltjeneste. Det er tydelig at levering selv har mer tro på en liturgisk realisme heller enn en idealisme; slik omtaler og siterer han den jødiske teologen Wyschogrod, som skrev slik på 90-tallet:

For Wyschogrod, to conceive of a communion with God outside such sacrifice is to fall into rationalism. He writes: “Above all, sacrifice is not an idea, but an act. Prayer and repentance are ideas. They are contemplative actions, of the heart rather than the body. For this reason, rationalists of all times have been delighted by the termination of the sacrifices. For them, the “service of the heart” is self-evidently more appropriate for communication between man and their rational God than the bloodbaths of a Temple-slaughterhouse.”

It follows that the communion, from our side, is only real if sacrificial. Sacrificial worship affirms that communal sacrifice is the only posture in which we can, as creatures, truly enter into communion with God. Wyschogrod states: “Enlightened religion recoils with horror from the thought of sacrifice, preferring a spotless house of worship filled with organ music and exquisitely polite behavior. …”

Non-sacrificial communion involves neither the human being’s true (completely dependent) self, nor God’s presence transforming and embracing the full human being.

des 022015
 

Lvering_Sacrifice_Community
Jeg begynner nå å lese boka Sacrifice and Community: Jewish Offering and Christian Eucharist, skrevet av professor Matthew Levering og utgitt i 2005. Starten på bok virker lovende; Levering viser når og hvordan også katolske teologer (Luther hadde allerede gjort det) begynte å hevde at eukaristien hadde lite med offer å gjøre. (Det er ett av temaene jeg gjerne vil finne mer ut om disse studiemånedene.) På amazon.co.uk omtales boka bl.a. slik:

This book explores the character of the Eucharist as communion in and through sacrifice. Drawing on Jewish reflection upon the Aqedah (the near–sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham in Genesis), as well as on other critical analyses of sacrifice in Scripture, the book shows that communion is not possible without the reconciliation attained by sacrificial self–giving love. Following the insights of St Thomas Aquinas, the author argues that all aspects of Eucharistic theology, including metaphysical doctrines such as transubstantiation, depend upon recognizing that communion cannot be separated from its sacrificial context.

The book will stimulate discussion because of its controversial critique of the dominant paradigm for Eucharistic theology, its reclamation of St Thomas Aquinas s theology of the Eucharist, and its response to Pope John Paul II s Ecclesia de Eucharistia. …

Jon D. Levenson points out that Israel, marked by desire to be in communion with the all-holy God, recognizes that such communion is possible only, after sin, through sacrificial offering.