Fra Wikimedia Commons, malt av Fr Dobromir Dimitrov. Klikk på bildet for å se en større utgave.
Det er St Halllvards dag i dag – 15. mai – og i år er det 1000 år siden han ble født. Hans fødselsår er tradisjonelt regnet som 1020, og Wikipedia skriver bl.a. dette om ham:
Sankt Hallvard (født ca. 1020, død 1043) er en katolsk helgen …
Man vet lite sikkert om Sankt Hallvards liv, men ifølge de islandske annalene ble han drept i år 1043. Ifølge legenden ble gutten som skulle bli den hellige Hallvard født Hallvard Vebjørnsson i Lier. Han skal ha vært sønn av storbonden Vebjørn på Husaby og Thorny, som var søster eller søsterdatter til Åsta Gudbrandsdatter. Åsta var på sin side mor til de norske kongene Olav den hellige og Harald Hardråde. Hallvard skal ha vokst opp hos sine foreldre på gården Husaby i Ytre Lier, og var ifølge legenden med sin far på handelsreiser, blant annet til Gotland.
En maidag i 1043, da Hallvard skulle krysse Drammensfjorden, kom en gravid trell løpende opp til ham og ba om å få bli rodd over. Hun ble forfulgt av tre menn som beskyldte henne for å ha brutt seg inn i et hus og stjålet. ….
Kjell Arild Pollestad uttrykker godt våre følelser for denne unge martyren i sin sin salme fra 1992:
Når vieren står gyllen med gåseunger små,
og vårens toner sildrer så lytt i bekk og å,
da minnes vi Sankt Hallvard, den lyse yngling god,
som uredd ville verge en kvinne med sitt blod.
Sankt Hallvard stod i båten og talte rettferds sak.
mot dem som ville krenke en søster, redd og svak.
Et skjold var han for kvinnen da pilene ble skutt,
så led han martyrdøden, den tapre, unge gutt.
En møllesten om halsen fikk denne Kristi bror,
da drapsmennene senket hans legeme i fjord.
Men ingen kan vel gjemme en helt som falt i slag,
og ingen kan vel glemme en martyrs fødselsdag.
Når vieren står gyllen med gåseunger små,
og vårens toner sildrer så lytt i bekk og å,
da feirer vi Sankt Hallvard i hele Norges land,
og ber at Gud oss lærer å gi oss selv som han.
Bildene av St Hallvard under er fra Oslos byvåpen og fra Oslo rådhus.
Bildet over er av Rogier van der Weyden, Kristus viser seg for sin mor, ca. 1445
Jeg må innrømme at jeg ikke har vært klar over, eller ikke tenkt på, denne tradisjonen (eller husker å ha sett de aktuelle bildene) som vi kan lese om her, bl.a.:
… there is one other subject (concerning the resurrection), of which several interpretations exist, that has a non-Biblical derivation. This is the image of Christ Appearing to His Mother after the Resurrection.
To say that the image has a non-Biblical derivation is not to say that it in any way contradicts the Bible. Indeed, it does not. The Bible tells us, specifically, that there were many people to whom the Risen Jesus appeared. That one of these should be His mother is a logical conclusion. She was the means through which He entered the physical world (Luke 1:38); He performed his first miracle in response to her plea at the wedding in Cana (John 2:1-11); she was present at the Crucifixion (John 19:25-27). She had been a witness to the most important events in His life and mission. It is quite logical that she should be a witness to His resurrection, principal among those unnamed persons to whom the Bible says Christ appeared after His resurrection. Therefore, the idea of the Virgin Mary as a witness to the resurrection has a long history in Christianity.
It was already established by the time of St. Ambrose (340–397). In his treatise on virginity (Liber de Virginitate) he says “Vidit ergo Maria resurretionem Domini: et prima vidit, et credidit” …
Albrect Dürer har også et bilde med samme motiv – kilde her.
I ettermiddag skulle vi ha sittet på flyet på vei til Aten, og deretter skulle vi kjøre bil til og rundt hele Peloponnes. Vi hadde planlagt en flott tur som naturlig nok måtte avlyses, siden fly til utlandet ikke går i disse dager etc.
Aten – 3 netter der vi bl.a. skulle se det nye Akpropolis-museet
Nafplio – deretter skulle vi bo flere dager i Naflio der vi også skulle besøke Korint, Mykene, Epidauros
Sparta – en dag i Sparta, deretter en fjellvei over til
Kalamata – for oss er dette verdens olivenhovedstad
Kyparissia – et par rolige dager på vestkysten av Peloponnes
Olympia – et besøk til oplympiadenes opphavssted var planlagt
Kourouta (ved Amaliada) – enda noe rolige dager ved kysten
Delfi – et besøk til Delfi hører med
Aten – siste natt i Aten før returen til Oslo
Muligens kan turen gjennomføres våren 2021, slik at den grundige forberedelsen til årets tur ikke var helt forgjeves.
Jeg hørte for et par dager siden intervjuet med kardinal Pell som ble laget av Andrew Bolt hos Sky News Australia. De skriver om det interessant intervjuet bl.a.:
After spending 405 days in prison following an initial ruling that found him guilty in 2018, Cardinal Pell’s conviction was quashed by the High Court last week.
In an exclusive interview with Sky News host Andrew Bolt, the Cardinal said he was “wounded” by the ordeal but turned to his faith to get him through. “If you can’t pray when you’re in trouble, your faith is very weak indeed,” he said.
When questioned by Andrew Bolt how he had survived through the ordeal, Cardinal Pell said, “because I knew I was innocent”.
Se hele intervjuet under på youtube.
I dag tidlig så jeg nyheten om at den australske kardinalen George Pell var blitt frikjent og satt fri av australsk høyesterett. Han hadde sittet 400 dager i fengsel (fått en dom på 6 år) etter å ha blitt anklaget for seksuelt misbruk av én person. Det fantes ingen ting som støttet denne anklagen, mens mange hadde vitnet om at handlingen aldri kunne ha skjedd slik den var beskrevet. Raymund de Susa skriver i National Catholic Register om dette og er ikke nådig når han beskriver det australske rettsvesenet. Han starter sin artikkel slik:
The unanimous decision by Australia’s High Court — equivalent to the Supreme Court — to quash the convictions of Cardinal George Pell is momentous for both Australian justice and for the Church, both in Australia and universally. About the Church, another column.
The acquittal of Cardinal Pell restores to an innocent man his freedom. There was no doubt at the High Court that a massive miscarriage of justice had occurred. Returning the verdict less than a month after hearing arguments, the seven justices eviscerated the judgment of the Court of Appeal, which 2-1 upheld the jury convictions on five counts of sexual abuse of a minor.
“The [Court of Appeal’s] analysis failed to engage with whether, against this body of evidence, it was reasonably possible that [the alleged victim’s] account was not correct, such that there was a reasonable doubt as to the applicant’s guilt,” the unanimous High Court wrote.
Which is to say, in plain English, that the Court of Appeal did not bother to ask whether the evidence was sufficient for conviction. “It failed to engage” the critical question: Did the mountain of evidence against the sole, uncorroborated account of the alleged victim require an acquittal on the grounds of reasonable doubt? It was, without a single dissenting voice, a devastating rebuke of the majority in the Court of Appeal, which ruled against Cardinal Pell.
The High Court Takes Extraordinary Measures
The High Court was so convinced of the wrongful conviction of Cardinal Pell — termed an “unsafe” verdict in Australian judicial parlance — that it handled his case in three unusual ways.
1) The High Court reversed a jury verdict. They did not find the process flawed and send the whole matter back for another trial. They determined that the only reasonable verdict was acquittal. Appellate courts are greatly deferential to juries. To flat out rule that the jury got it grievously wrong is rare.
2) The High Court did not limit itself to determining whether the Court of Appeal acted properly in applying the law. Rather, it gave itself the scope to examine all of the evidence from the original jury trials. Indeed, the High Court judgment reviewed in comprehensive detail the key evidence, step by step, from the trial. That is not usually what supreme courts do, but it did so in this case to demonstrate that it was simply impossible to convict “safely,” namely beyond a reasonable doubt.
3) The High Court moved with great speed. It was three weeks — lightning fast for a supreme court — from hearing the case to announcing that the judgment was ready. There is urgency when an innocent man is in prison, to be sure. But the speed of the verdict reflected the view of all seven justices that there simply was no case against Pell.
I videoen over (fra i går kveld) hilser pave Frans alle mennesker i Italia og i resten av verden. Videoen er tekstet til engelsk, men katolsk.no har også lagt ut videoen med en norsk oversettelse, og den har til overskrift: Vit at paven er nær og ber om at Herren snart skal frelse oss alle fra det onde
Jeg har ofte ikke vært veldig fornøyd med pave Frans (og lengtet tilbake til pave Benedikts tid), men jeg syns han har klart disse siste ukene under denne alvorlige pandemien.
I dag leste jeg følgende hos Rorate Cæli:
Suspending public Mass is not new. In 1918, during the Spanish Influenza Epidemic, in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, public Masses were suspended for a number of weeks in October 1918.
Philadelphia was particularly hard-hit by the Spanish Influenza of 1918. There was a public war-bonds parade at the beginning of October in which 200,000 people attended. Three days later, Spanish Influenza exploded in Philadelphia, and, within two weeks, 4,500 people had died.
Archbishop Dougherty suspended public Masses on March 4th (in accordance with the order of the Board of Health) and called upon the religious sisters to help care for the sick. He also encouraged the use of church facilities for the temporary care of the sick. The churches in the city of Philadelphia were not ordered to be locked and many remained opened for the faithful. Masses and public devotions including confessions were suspended, though. City churches reinstated confessions on Saturday Oct 26th with public Mass starting the following day, but in many rural churches the public celebration of Mass remained suspended until Nov 3rd.
Philadelphia was not the only city to close churches. A 2007 study looked at how 17 cities responded to the September – December 1918 Spanish Influenza Epidemic. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of social distancing on the spread of the flu. The authors document 13 cities that curtailed church gatherings: Baltimore, Boston, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Newark, New Orleans, Omaha, Pittsburgh, Seattle, St. Louis, and Washington DC.
During these difficult times in 2020, we should be aware that what we are experiencing is not totally new. As a devout Catholic, suspension of public Mass is a shock, but we should remember that the Church has been here before. Catholics can and should make acts of spiritual communion and pray with due attention. If the churches in your diocese are not locked, make a visit to the Blessed Sacrament and spend some time with Our Lord.
Dette fant jeg på lifesitenews.com:
A ‘flash of creativity’ fills an empty parish church during Mass
A small-town Italian priest, saddened at the prospect of celebrating Mass without his parishioners, sent out a call to them asking them to take selfies and send them to him.
“Send me photographs of yourselves, of you and your family, the photo of your face, I need to see faces in front of me when I celebrate Mass next Sunday,” explained Fr. Giuseppe Corbari, according to a WantedinMilan.com report. “I will print the photo you send me and I will stick it with sellotape on the pew: it is a way to make me feel less alone.”
“Obviously I will put the children in the front benches, the altar boys on the altar, and all the adults in the other places,” added Fr. Corbari, who said he was happy to once again have his church full of smiling faces.”
Pave Frans gikk ut for å be om at koronaviruspandemien må ta slutt, …han … gikk først til basilikaen Santa Maria Maggiore, som han ofte tidligere har besøkt for å be takkebønn når han vender tilbake fra utenlandsreiser.
Deretter gikk turen til Piazza Venezia, hvor han spaserte en kort tur langs handlegaten Via del Corso før han stakk innom ei kirke som de fleste turister går forbi, San Marcello al Corso.
– Med sin bønn har den hellige far påkalt slutten på pandemien som rammer Italia og verden, tryglet om at de mange syke blir helbredet, og også mintes de mange ofrene og bedt om at deres familier og venner finner trøst og støtte, sier Vatikanet i en pressemelding søndag kveld.
I en artikkel som egentlig handlet om noe annet, leste jeg også: “the church of San Marcello al Corso, where a miraculous crucifix is housed. In 1522 it was carried in procession throughout the neighborhoods of the city so that the ‘Great Plague’ might cease in Rome.”
Etter hvert fant jeg også ut mer om dette krusifikset, bl.a. HER:
The church of San Marcello al Corso hosts a wonderful, dark wooden crucifix by the fourteenth century Sienese school. … A miraculous episode dates back to the time of the great plague of 1522. The plague struck Rome so violently as to cause concern that the city remained without inhabitants. Mindful of the miracle of the fire, the friars of the order of the “Servants of Mary” decided to take the crucifix in penitential procession from the church of San Marcello to St. Peter’s Basilica. The authorities, fearing the risk of contagion tried to prevent the religious procession, but the collective despair did not accept the ban and the sculpture of the Savior was carried through the streets of the city and followed by public acclaim. The chronicles of the time say that the procession lasted sixteen days, 4 to 20 August of that year. And that’s because, as they proceeded, the plague receded, so that each district was trying to hold back as long as possible the sacred image. When it returned to San Marcello, the plague had completely ceased and Rome was saved.
Mer informasjon HER (gå ned til “Chapel of the Crucifix”).
På Rorate Coeli leste jeg i går, 14/3, dette vitnesbyrdet om et italiensk politikers katolske tro:
Yesterday the Mayor of Venice, Luigi Brugnaro, wearing his three-colored sash of office, visited the Basilica of La Madonna della Salute in Venice – and – along with other prayers , invoking the protection of the Blessed Virgin– consecrated Venice and the entire Veneto region to the Immaculate Heart of Mary with this: “we consecrate the city of Venice and our Veneto lands to Your Immaculate Heart.”
De siste to ukene av januar leste jeg meg også gjennom bok to av Chris Wickham, nemlig The Inheritance of Rome. Det var svært mye (noen ganger litt for detaljert) og interessant informasjon på de 600 sidene. Amazon skriver om boka:
The world known as the ‘Dark Ages’, often seen as a time of barbarism, was in fact the crucible in which modern Europe would be created.
Chris Wickham’s acclaimed history shows how this period, encompassing peoples such as Goths, Franks, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings, was central to the development of our history and culture. From the collapse of the Roman Empire to the establishment of new European states, and from Ireland to Constantinople, the Baltic to the Mediterranean, this landmark work makes sense of a time of invasion and turbulence, but also of continuity, creativity and achievement.
Dette var et emne jeg visste lite om, jeg hadde hørt navnene til Attila huneren (406-453) og Djengis Khan (1162-1227), men ikke så mye mer. Nå har jeg hørt gjennom over 18 timer med foredrag om disse “Barbarian Empires of the Steppes” (kanskje for mye detaljer en del steder) og lært en hel del. Audible skriver om boka:
The word “barbarian” quickly conjures images of Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan. Yet few people realize these men belong to a succession of nomadic warriors who emerged from the Eurasian steppes to conquer civilizations. It’s a part of ancient and medieval history that’s often overlooked, but for an accurate view of how the world evolved, it’s essential.
Covering some 6,000 miles and 6,000 years, this eye-opening course illuminates how a series of groups – from the Sacae and Sarmatians to the infamous Huns and Mongols – pushed ever westward, coming into contact with the Roman Empire, Han China, and distant cultures from Iraq to India.
Along the way, you’ll learn how these nomads caused a domino effect of displacement and cultural exchange; meet fascinating figures such as Tamerlane, the “Prince of Destruction”; witness struggles to control the legendary Silk Road; trace the spread of Buddhism and Islam, and more.
By looking past the barbarian stereotype, you’ll understand who these people were, the significance of their innovations – which include stirrups, saddles, and gunpowder – and the magnitude of their impact. Of course, these warriors did wage campaigns of terror, and you’ll hear many accounts of violence as well.
Led by an award-winning professor, these 36 lectures provide new insights on how the world was shaped and introduce you to cultures and empires you’ve likely never encountered.
Jeg kjøpte denne lydboka for 4-5 år siden, men først nå fikk jeg hørt gjennom den grundig. Den var interessant og tok opp mange flere kulturelle trekk ved vikingene enn jeg hadde regnet med; bl.a. dere bosettninger og innflytelse på Island, Irland, Normandie og Ukraina/Russland. Audible skriver om boka:
As raiders and explorers, the Vikings played a decisive role in the formation of Latin Christendom, and particularly of western Europe.
Now, in a series of 36 vivid lectures by an honored teacher and classical scholar, you have the opportunity to understand this remarkable race as never before, studying the Vikings not only as warriors, but in all of the other roles in which they were equally extraordinary – merchants, artists, kings, raiders, seafarers, shipbuilders, and creators of a remarkable literature of myths and sagas. Professor Harl draws insights from an astonishing array of sources: The Russian Primary Chronicle (a Slavic text from medieval Kiev), 13th-century Icelandic poems and sagas, Byzantine accounts, Arab geographies, annals of Irish monks who faced Viking raids, Roman reports, and scores of other firsthand contemporary documents.
Among the topics you’ll explore are the profound influence of the Norse gods and heroes on Viking culture and the Vikings’ extraordinary accomplishments as explorers and settlers in Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland. And with the help of archaeological findings, you’ll learn to analyze Viking ship burials, rune stones and runic inscriptions, Viking wood carving, jewelry, sculpture, and metalwork. By the end of the series, you’ll have a new understanding of what it meant to be a Viking and a richer appreciation of this remarkable race – a people who truly defined the history of Europe, and whose brave, adventurous, and creative spirit still survives today.
Første halvdel av januar leste jeg meg også (i tillegg til flere lydbøker) gjennom Chris Wickhams Medieval Europe. Det var ganske lærerikt og Amazon skriver om boka:
A spirited and thought-provoking history of the vast changes that transformed Europe during the 1,000-year span of the Middle Ages The millennium between the breakup of the western Roman Empire and the Reformation was a long and hugely transformative period-one not easily chronicled within the scope of a few hundred pages. Yet distinguished historian Chris Wickham has taken up the challenge in this landmark book, and he succeeds in producing the most riveting account of medieval Europe in a generation. Tracking the entire sweep of the Middle Ages across Europe, Wickham focuses on important changes century by century, including such pivotal crises and moments as the fall of the western Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s reforms, the feudal revolution, the challenge of heresy, the destruction of the Byzantine Empire, the rebuilding of late medieval states, and the appalling devastation of the Black Death. He provides illuminating vignettes that underscore how shifting social, economic, and political circumstances affected individual lives and international events. Wickham offers both a new conception of Europe’s medieval period and a provocative revision of exactly how and why the Middle Ages matter.
Jeg har lest en del om Aleksander den store også tidligere, men denne lydboka ga meg en hel del ekstra informasjon om ham. På Audibles nettsider leser man bl.a. dette om den:
More than two millennia have passed since Alexander the Great built an empire that stretched to every corner of the ancient world, from the backwater kingdom of Macedonia to the Hellenic world, Persia, and ultimately to India – all before his untimely death at age 33. Alexander believed that his empire would stop only when he reached the Pacific Ocean. But stories of both real and legendary events from his life have kept him evergreen in our imaginations with a legacy that has meant something different to every era: In the Middle Ages he became an exemplar of knightly chivalry, he was a star of Renaissance paintings, and by the early 20th century he’d even come to resemble an English gentleman. But who was he in his own time?
In Alexander the Great, Anthony Everitt judges Alexander’s life against the criteria of his own age and considers all his contradictions. We meet the Macedonian prince who was naturally inquisitive and fascinated by science and exploration, as well as the man who enjoyed the arts and used Homer’s great epic, the Iliad, as a bible. As his empire grew, Alexander exhibited respect for the traditions of his new subjects and careful judgment in administering rule over his vast territory. But his career also had a dark side. An inveterate conqueror who in his short life built the largest empire up to that point in history, Alexander glorified war and was known to commit acts of remarkable cruelty.
Enda en interessant lydbok er “fortært”. Her kan man se den på Audibles nettsider – og lese dette om den:
For well over 2,000 years, much of our fundamental “desire to know” has focused on science. Our commitment to science and technology has been so profound that these stand as probably the most powerful influences on human culture. To truly understand our Western heritage, our contemporary society, and ourselves as individuals, we need to know what science is and how it developed.
In this 36-lecture series, one of science’s most acclaimed teachers takes you through science’s complex evolution of thought and discovery, often originating from ideas that by today’s technological perspective might be considered ridiculous or humorous, although many are still relevant today. You’ll consider science’s often fascinating history, from ancient times to the Scientific Revolution, in terms of several penetrating questions, including two of special importance: Who pursued science, and why? What happened, and why?
In the hands of Professor Principe, the history of science becomes far more than just a litany of dates, significant individuals, and breakthrough discoveries. In examining the evolution of science, he restores the vitally important context that has been lost from the discussion, showing how science is characterized by ideas that link eras widely separated in time. A primary theme is the relationship between science and religion. Today, we tend to see the two as separate and even antagonistic. Theology, in fact, is a principal motivator for scientific inquiry. And in the Middle Ages, Christianity and Islam were of paramount importance in preserving and furthering scientific knowledge.
New Catholic Register omtaler et program som ble sendt på tysk fjernsyn 3. januar, og som beskriver pave Benedikts liv både nå i Vatikanet og tidligere. Se omtalen av programmet og selve programmet (på tysk). De skriver bl.a.:
Benedict XVI appears mentally alert but noticeably frailer and almost unable to speak in a new German television documentary providing a rare glimpse into his daily life.
In the half-hour film aired on Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian state television) on Jan. 3, the 92-year-old Pope Emeritus speaks only three times but in a barely audible voice.
“I used to have a great voice, now it doesn’t work anymore,” Benedict says in the program, which was filmed at his Mater Ecclesiae monastery residence in the Vatican.
“One sees that his strength isn’t there anymore,” his personal secretary Archbishop Georg Gänswein says in the program. “His voice is simply broken, weaker” but he adds that what is “important” to him is “good company” which “lifts his heart” and that he is “at peace with himself.”
His physical appearance has deteriorated considerably over the past couple of years: the documentary shows Benedict thanking guests at his 90th birthday celebration in 2017 with a stronger though still frail voice.
The bulk of the program, entitled “Little Bavaria in the Vatican” and filmed in September, is biographical, recalling Joseph Ratzinger’s childhood, the main events of his life and his personal preferences, interspersed with past interviews with him as cardinal and pope. … …
I dag er det 20 år siden min prestevielse, i St Paul kirke i Bergen. Bildet under viser når biskop Gerhard Schwenzer salver hendene mine etter håndspåleggelsen.